By J. Seymour Currey
As submitted to the Illinois State Historical Association

©Illinois Trails History and Genealogy

PIONEER PERIOD. It is well known that the southern portion of the State of Illinois was settled long before the northern portion was. The accessibility of the territory lying contiguous to, or within easy reach of, the of the Ohio and Mississippi, rendered it easy of access for settlers from the east, who arrived mostly by way of routes on those rivers. When Illinois was admitted as a State in 1818, the population was 50,000, largely distributed throughout the southern portion. At this time Fort Dearborn had been but recently.rebuilt after the dreadful massacre of 1812, and the country surrounding it was scarcely known to the settler. At the time of the Black Hawk war in 1832, the entrance to the Chicago river had become a convenient landing place for vessels on the lakes, though it was as yet an open roadstead. It was not until some years later that the government dredged out the channel so as to permit larger vessels to enter the river. Steamers, however, had begun to ply the lakes at this period, and a few years later (1839) a regular line of steamers was established connecting Buffalo and Chicago. The year 1832, in which the Black Hawk war occurred, was an epoch in the history of Chicago and the regions surrounding it, because of the great influx of troops and supplies at this point, under the direction of the government; thus establishing a route from the east which was followed by settlers afterwards when seeking entrance to the fertile prairie lands and woodlands of this portion of the State of Illinois, and the territory of Wisconsin to the north. The war itself was little more than a series of skirmishes with the Indians who were finally driven across the Mississippi, and they troubled the country no more. The accounts of the war caused an immense sensation throughout the country, and after its conclusion very important consequences followed. The attention of the country was called to the advantages ia the soil and climate possessed by Illinois. The officers and men of the army, on their return from the campaign throughout the northern portion of Illinois and Wisconsin, brought home with them wonderful accounts of the country. Settlers began to arrive shortly after in a constantly increasing stream which soon became a tide. The history of Chicago has been told so many times that it is unnecessary for me to give more than an outline sufficient for a general understanding of the beginnings of pioneer life in the regions surrounding it. After the abandonment of Fort Dearborn on August 15, 1812, by order of General Hull then in command of the American forces at Detroit and order given with the intention of concentrating all available forces at Detroit to resist a British- attack-the small company of troops with their families and a few friendly Indians began their fatal retreat. They were pursued by hostile Indians, and at a point about two miles south of the fort they were completely overwhelmed, after a brave defense; and the greater part, including most of the women and children, were killed. Those who survived were tortured and some put to death, a few eventually escaping. The fort was burned by the Indians and thereafter no white man lived on or near the spot for a space of four years. John Kinzie, an Indian trader, came in 1804, but escaped the massacre of 1812 by embarking with his family in a small boat on the lake. He returned in 1816 after a variety of adventures and soon afterwards the government, having meantime made new treaties with the Indians, began the erection of the new fort. Few but military people lived here during the next ten years; and it was not until 1832 that a few scattering houses had been built on the surrounding spaces within cannon shot of the stockaded walls of the fort; and a population, outside of the garrison, of some 130 persons dwelt and pursued their various occupations. The importance of this point as a trading center was as yet dimly perceived by the residents, and other places seemed preferable to many. There were places north and south of this point which were thought to have advantages superior to the wretched little settlement on the low flat lands at the mouth of the Chicago river. However, the Black Hawk war, showing as it did the great value of Fort Dearborn as a base of supplies, clearly indicated that here was the most convenient place from which military- operations could be carried on. Here was landed the force of U. S. regulars, to the number of 1,000 men under General Winfield Scott, to take part in the campaign. After the hostile Indians had been driven out of the State the few frightened settlers who had taken refuge at the fort returned to their holdings. Chicago then began to increase in population, and in 1835 there were some 1,500 inhabitants, though the importance of the place was much greater than might be inferred from its small population. Arriving settlers in most cases did not care to stay ii the place; it was "too uninviting" one relates, and they moved on to more attractive scenes. Thus the prairie lands to the west were rapidly taken up, and in the later "thirties" settlers began to turn their attention to the wooded regions lying to the north. It was about 1835 that the first pioneers penetrated the wilderness in that direction.

The term "North Shore" is descriptive of the region bordering the shore of Lake Michigail to the north of Chicago. How far the region thus described might extend it too difficult to state. In this address. I will consider that the term applies to the region along the shore of the lake as far north as Waukegan which is near the State line. People in Boston use the term "North Shore" to describe- the coast as far -north as Gloucester at least. The expression was not used, so far as I can find, by the residents of this region previous to about 1890; but starting ag a colloquial expression it has become a most useful addition to our local vocabulary and ha's been utilized in the names of transportation and other companies. In the "thirties" and "forties" the name of Gross Point served to indicate the locality situated along the shore generally within the space later known as "iRidgeville township." Up to 1850 the locality was known as "Gross Point voting district," having no definite boundaries;, but in that yea~r the township of IRidgeville was organized and the voting district passed -out of existence. Gross Point is a name that has come down to us from the French voyjageurs, who passed and repasse~d this shore for a hundred and fifty years in their batteaux, engaged in the fur trade long before the pioneers came. The correct spelling in French would be Grosse Pointe., but current usage has settled the spelling as indicated above. A point of land forming an obtuse angle projects into the lake a-bout thirteen miles north of the mouth of the Chicago river, and here the land rises into. bluffs of a moderate height. This was called Gross Point by the early voyaegeurs, and in common with many other names up and down the lakes also of French origin, the name has remained as a picturesque remnant of the period when all this extensive lake region was a part of the dominions of the French kings. The wooded shores of' the lake wore a lovely aspect to the passing voyageur or sailor; and Gross Point especially loomed up as a most attractive spot and became known by the romantic name of "Beauty's. Eyebrow." The point, however, was a place to be dreaded in storm and darkness, and there is a long list of wrecks and loss of life associated with its history. Since 1874,a tall lighthouse with a revolving light serves as a landmark and guide to the mariner. In 1836 a small schooner called the "Dolphin" dropped anchor in the Chicago river after a stormy voyage from Lake Erie. On board was Arunah Hill, his wife and eight children, who with their hou-sehold goods, were landed and soon after placed on a wagon and driven by oxteam to their new home, which was a small cabin located on what *we,now call Ridge avenue, directly west of Calvary station within the present city limits of Evanston. A small clearing in the woods surrounded the cabin, which was built of.boards, but without windows or a chimney. The cabin had been built the previous year, by Major Edward H. Mulford, who had taken up land from the govern'ment and had made some. slight improvements. Major Mulford, who hpd become a resident of Chicago (where he engaged in the. jewelry business), had doubtless begun this improvement with the idea of living upon the place. After occupying this place one year, Hill removed some three miles to the north, west of the present village of Wilmette, where he located permanently; and Mulford began living in his cabin and reresided on his place.the remainder of his, life. Hill and his family were among the earliest arrivals in this region, and one of his sons, Benjamin F. Hill, who was six years old when the family came upon the scene, resided here up to the time of his death in 1905. B. F. Hill has left on record a very intelligent account of life and experiences in the pioneer times of this section. He relates that on arriving in Chicago he saw groups of Indians, who were a great curiosity to the newly arrived settlers; and after reaching their cabin on the Mulford place they found it in the midst of the forest which after nightfall resounded with the cries of wolves and owls. Other settlers soon joined them, among whom were Abraham Hathaway, John Carney, George and Paul Pratt, Henry Clarke, George W. Huntoon, William Foster, Benjamin Emerson-names familiar in the early annals of Evanston, and who arrived previous to 1840. During the next decade came John O'Leary, Samuel Reed, David Burroughs, Ozro and Charles Crain, Edward Murphy, Alexander McDaniel, Eli Gaffield, Philo Colvin, Sylvester Beckwith, Oliver Jellison, James Hartray, Otis Munn and many others. The township of Ridgeway. was organized in 1850 with a population of 443. Previous to 1846 the residents of the Gross Point district were obliged to get their letters at Chicago, or at Dutchman's Point, now Niles. December 28, 1846, the post office was kept at the houses of the postmasters, and chahged its location at each change of the incumbent. Most of the homes of the settlers were strung along the Green Bay road, now Ridge avenue, extending some three miles. The forest was gradually cut away by the settlers, who found a ready market for wood at Chicago, then grov iiig by leaps and bounds, and by 1850 the country was covered by well tilled farms. The road north from Chicago, instead of being lined by villages and towns, as at present, was marked by taverns, or "hotels," as they were often rather grandiloquently called in those days, at intervals of a few miles. The first of these, after leaving Chicago, was Britton's, which was situated about where the old Lake View town hall now stands. The next was Baer's tavern at Rosehill; the next, Trader's at Calvary. Others along the Green Bay road (which was the general name for the road north) were Tillman's tavern, Buckeye hotel, Stebbins' tavern, etc, These taverns were later known after the stage coaches began to run, as "Seven-mile house," "Ten-mile house," etc., according to thdir" location. The roads followed the low ridges which beein to rise gradually towards the north, and were generally sandy; which is the usual characteristic of the surface on the higher undulations of the land, though in the low portions between the ridges the soil is dark and fertile. In quite recent geologic times the waters of Lake Michigan stood some twenty feet higher than at present and poured a flood over the divide into, the Desplaines river valley, taking the same course through which  greet drainage canal was cut some years since at immense labor and cost. The present site of Chicago was then the bottom of a shallow bay extending westward to the higher lands some twelve or fifteen miles from the present margin of the lake; and northward in long tongues of shallow water between the ridges which formed low promontories. At that time the first land appearing above the surface of the waters was in the neighborhood of Rosehill, and from this point northward the land rose gradually, until at Waukegan, the bluffs attained a height of fifty or sixty feet above -the surface of the lake. These. facts account for the sandy ridges, gravelly subsoil and old beach marks which are characteristic of the region. The glacial action of a more remote period is evident in the occurrence of boulders, some of great size. One may be seen -near the railway station at Waukegan, and one on the campus of the Northwestern University at Evanston. The settlers arriving previous to 1850 canie by boat and by overland routes from the east; many of them were former residents of eastern states, but German immigants formed a' large element. The descendants of these German settlers remain today as prosperous market gardeners and flower growers occupying the lands on the beautiful rolling country a few miles back from the lake shore. Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837, at which time it had attained a population of more than 4,000, and was a ready and convenient market for everything the settlers had to sell wood for fuel and cooperage, farm produce, etc. Thus there was a larger measure of prosperity among these settlers than was usually found in pioneer communities. They began to surround themselves with a better class of improvements, built frame houses to replace the log cabins of the earlier period, and provided better school facilities for the young. April 26, 1850, the name of the post office was changed from Gross Point to Ridgeville. At this time the places towards the north were as follows:

Seven-mile House
Ten-mile House
Ouilmette Reservation
Port Clinton
Highland Park
St. John
Ft. Sheridan
Little Fort

The northern limits of Cook county are some twenty-one miles north of Chicago, the remainder of the distance along the north shore to the State line lying in Lake county. The life of the people living along the north shore, as may well be imagined, was in an early day closely interwoven with that of Lake Michigan, with its vicissitudes of storm and calm, its busy commerce and attendant disasters, its navigation and its life afloat. From the shoree an illimitable horizon stretched away to the ýeastward, and fleets of sa-iling craft flecked the broad bosom of its waters. Many familie's had one or more members engaged in the occupation of sailing the lakes, and among the older inhabitants are captains and sailors, now retired, who spent years of their lives in lake navigation. The last twenty years has witnessed a great diminution' in the numbers of sailing vessels, their places being supplied by the great steamers which carry, in one cargo, as much as ten or dozen schooners, formerly did. Tales of maritime adventures could be gathered in volumes from the older inhabitants and their descendants today; and many of the early settlers on this shore were attracted thither by the bosky woodlands and pleasant uplands seen from passing vessels.

Captain Sylvester Beckwith, in command of the schooner "Winslow," which he had sailed fourteen years, was wrecked off the shore where Winnetka is now located in 1841; and 'With his crew' found shelter at Patterson's tavern., then the principal stopping place at that point for stages and road travel on the Green Bay road. He abandoned life afloat and took up land near old Grogs Point and remained there the rest of his life, becoming one of our prominent and substantial citizens. Captain Fred Canfield and Captain Robert Kyle likewise settled here after many years of sea-faring life. Every mile of the shore has its record of wreck and loss of life-, and since the life saving station was established at Evanston, in 1877., the saving of some four hundred lives during the thirty years of its existence gives some idea of the disasters and loss of life which must have occurred in previous years, when no record was kept. For while the shores are not rock-bound as on many dangerous coasts, the peril to navigators when forced on a sandy beach, especially when skirted by bluffs approaching close to the margin of the lake, has proved to be a very serious one. It was for this reason that the govern~ment has established at short intervals along this shore light houses, fog horns and life-saving stations.

In 1850, the population of Chicago was upwards of 28,000; and, as by that time telegraphic lines had been established between important points, the residents of the north shore were well served by the enterprising press of the city. The news of the world was at their command, and among 'the leading events of that time the accounts of gold discoveries in California attracted wide-spread. attention and profoundly affected the farmers and woodsmen of the neighborhood. Already Ozro Crain, a man of an adventurous disposition, in the spring of the previous year (1849) had made his way across the plains and returned in the fall with glowing accounts from the land of gold. During the following winter a party was organized ready for a start westward in the spring, the men who composed it planning to be absent'a. few years, to try their fortunes in the gold mines of the new El Dorado. There were about thirty men in the party whose -names, as far as ascertained, were as follows:

Ozro Crain, leader; Charles Crain, Erwin Crain, Leander Crain, brothers ot Ozro; Orson Crain, a cousin; Alonzo Burroughs, William Foster and his son, John; Oliver Jellison, Alexander McDaniel, Eli Gaffield, Sylvester Beckwith, Andrew Robinson, Benjamin Emerson, James Hartray, Azel Patterson, Joel Stebbins, James Dennis, George Reed, Henry Pratt, Smith Hill, James Bowman and others whose last names only can be given-Hazzard, Fox, Webley, Fluent, Miller, Rice and Ackley

There were others who also went across the plains to the samp destination, but not with the party above mentioned. Some of these were B. F. Hill, Samuel Reed, Abraham Hathaway and John O'Leary. On the 8th of April, 1850, the party started from the Buckeye hotel, a small frame house still standing on Ridge avenue in Evanston. There were seven or eight wagons for the party, and a horse for each man. The scene at the departure was an animated one, and, after the farewells had been spoken and the keepsakes exchanged, the party began their long journey to California. The "California widows," as the wives of the adventurers were called, went on with the,work of the farms and shops, and in most cases managed their affairs well during the absence of their husbands. Their conduct affords as fine an example of constancy and devotion as can be found in the annals of romance. Just as the crusaders of old, rallying from every country in Europe and following the banner of the cross to the far distant land of Palestine, found on their return from an absence of years their faithful wives true in their affections and to the trusts confided to them, so our California Argonauts found on their return the warmth of heartfelt affection and welcome to their homes after their long absence in the land of gold. And when we consider what those homes were, far on the frontier of civilization, devoid of many of the comforts and conveniences which we deem so necessary in the homes of this day, we can form some idea of the true hearted faithfulness of the women of pioneer times. It is to these women who, in the pioneer life we have attempted to depict, have maintained the honor and purity of these homes of the early times, and to whom are due the best elements in the institutions and life we now enjoy.

We have some interesting records of the long journey of the party across the plains. Alexander McDaniel methodically kept a diary during the two years of his absence, and when possible wrote long letters to his young wife at home. Letters from Ft. Leavenworth, Ft. Laramie and Salt Lake City were received, and finally, after a journey of some two and one-half months, the party, at leasi most of them, reached their destination on the western slopes of the Sierras. Some members of the party did not remain with their associates to Sthe end of the journey, preferring to return from various points on the way. Those who at last reached the gold diggings took up claims and began work in earnest. McDaniel records in his diary the amount of "dust" taken out each day, and the amounts varied from three or four dollars to over thirty dollars as the result of the d'ay's work., and some exceptional days much larger sums. As fast as he accumulated the precious metal in sufficient quantities to make shipments, it was sent by Wells, Fargo & Company's Express (the same company and name we are familiar with today) to his faithful wife at home, who cared for it safely until his return some twenty-one months later, having gained some.three thousand dollars as the result of his trip. The Crains also did well, geriterally speaking, and also many of the other members of the party., They mostly all returned within a couple of years, either across the plains, the way they had gone, or by the Panama route. Benjamin Emerson was robbed of four thousand dollars of his gains while on his way, home. Oliver Jellison disappeared and was never more heard off; Joel Stebbins, Mr. Webley and Azel Patterson never returned.  A party of California adventurers also started from Waukegan. Among those Who were members of the party were Isaiah Marsh, George Ferguson, George Allen Hubbard, D. H. Sherman, William and James Steele, and Jacob Miller with his two sons. Hubbard was frozen to death while crossing the mountains, and Jacob Miller died from the exposures and privation 's suffered on the journey.

During the fifteen years from 1835, when the first settlers came in any appreciable numbers, to 1850, the land had been cleared of the greater part of its forest growth, and farming had become the principal, occupation of the people. From Chicago north to the State line, a. distance of some forty-five miles, there had grown up* a succession of small commnunities., the most important of which was Waukegan, which previous to 1849 had been known as Little Fort. This town, in 1850., had a population of over 3,000, possessed a thriving trade in lumber and grain, and had become a port of call f or a line of steamers. During the year just mentioned there had been over a thousand arrivals of lake vessels and,steamers at the port of Waukegan and the government had begun work to improve the harbor. At one time the people of the place regarded it as a rival of Chicago, but after the completion of the railroad between Chicago and Milwaukee a few years later its com mercial importance declined, though as the county seat of Lake county it has become an attractive and well built city and the center of trade for a prosperous country population.  Among the early residents of Waukegan, were Henry W. Blodgett, in later years well known as,a federal judge; and Elijah M. Haines, who came to Little Fort as early as 1843. Haines published a history of Lake county in 1852, the county being then but thirteen years old. Haines was an industrious and careful historian of the events in which he himself had a large share, and his writings, now scarce and difficult to procure, are among the most valuable of our pioneer sketches.

MODERN PERIOD On the 31st day of May, 1850, a meeting of a few gentlemen was held in the office of Grant Goodrich in Chicago, the object of which was to take steps towards founding a university, "to be under the control and patronage of the Methodist Episcopal Church." Among those present were Grant Goodrich, Rev. Zadoc Hall, Rev. Richard Haney, Rev. R. H. Blanchard, Orrington Lunt, Dr. John Evans, J. K. Botsford, Henry W. Clarke and Andrew J. Brown. The result of this meeting was an application to the State Legislature for a charter, which was granted in an Act passed January 28, 1851. Pursuant to thisact the Northwestern University was organized June 14, 1851. The president of the first Board of Trustees was John Evans, who soon after arranged, on behalf of the board, for the purchase of the block of ground in Chicago on which now stands the Grand Pacific 'hotel and 'the Illinois Trust and Savings Bank. The purchase price was eight thousand dollars. The purpose in view was the establishment of a preparatory school, though this purpose was afterwards abandoned. The land, however, was retained and is now a valuable asset of the university. "This was the smartest thing we ever did," said Mr. Lunt many years later. "There was nothing particularly smart in the purchasing, but the smart thing was in the keeping of it, for it is now (1888) worth a million dollars." June 22, 1853, Clark T. Hinman was. elected the first president of the faculty of the university, though no buildings had been erected as yet and no site. even selected. Several locations were considered and finally a Dart. visited the lake shore in the township of Ridgeville and decided on the site" now occupied by the university. A tract of 380 acres was purchased from Dr. John H.. Foster in August, 1853, and a part of the land was laid out for a campus, a building erected, and the university was opened to students November 5, 1855. A year or more before this time (October, 1854) Dr. Hinman died and no successor was elected until the following year. During the winter of 1853-4 a plat of a village was made under the superintendence of Rev. Philo Judson, who had been appointed by the board of trustees as the business agent of the university, and the village thus platted was named Evanston, in honor of Dr. John Evans, the president of the board of trustees. This was on February 3, 1854. The plat of the village was recorded July 27, 1854. The name of the post office, however, was not changed until August 27, 1855, when it ceased to be called Ridgeville, and was thereafter officially named by the post office department, Evanston. James B. Colvin was appointed the first postmaster under the new name. The name of the township of Ridgeville was changed to Evanston, February 17, 1857, accompanied by a change of boundaries. Lakeview township, formerly a part of Ridgeville township, was at the same time created, and has since been 'included within the city limits of Chicago. When the Northwestern University decided on locating its campus and buildings where they are now situated, the community, thereafter known as Evanston, entered upon a new era in its history. It became-a seat of learning and a oenter of interest to the large body of Methodists throughout the west, and attracted a class of residents who were connected with the work of the university. The friends and sympathizers with the new institution also came in constantly increasing numbers, so that a tone and atmosphere was created that vitally influenced the later development of the place. The prohibition against the sale of liquors within a. limit of four miles from the principal buildings of the university, such a provision having been included in the charter of the institution, guaranteed to the community absolute immunity from the evil influences of the liquor traffic. Previous to this time, in the older pioneer period, liquor selling had been carried on at all the taverns, "groceries," and road houses scattered along the highways; and these places had become a resort for -thieves and fugitives from justice, and especially counterfeiters, who flourished greatly in those days-to the great scandal of the quiet and law abiding settlers of the vicinity. This was now done away with completely; and, since the establishment of the university, the prohibition against liquor selling has lent character and distinction to the place, and continues to be one of the most carefully guarded and cherished institutions of the people. The Garrett Biblical Institute at Evanston, founded for the purpose of preparing young men for the ministry, began its work in 1856. It is interesting to note that a part of the endowment of this institution consisted of property in Chicago on which was built the "Wigwam" in 1860. In this building Abraham Lincoln was nominated for the presidency. In 1860 occurred a most appalling steamer disaster off the shore opposite Highland park, resulting in the loss of some 300 lives. The steamer "Lady Elgin," a large side wheel steamer, and the finest one on the lakes, left Chicago late on the evening of September 7 with some 400 passengers, most of whom were bound for Milwaukee. While proceeding on her course some three hours later, that is, about two o'clock in the morning of September 8, the steamer came into collision with the schooner "Augusta" bound for Chicago. Immediately after the collision the captain of the schooner shouted to the people on thO steamer inquiring if they had suffered any damage or whether help was needed, but receiving an answer that no assistance was needed, the schooner proceeded on her course. On its arrival in Chicago harbor next morning the captain learned from the papers that the steamer had gone down in half an hour after the collision, and a large number of lives were lost. When the ill fated steamer sank she was three miles from the shore and a gale was blowing from the northeast. Three boats had been lowered immediately after the collision, manned by sailors provided with mattresses and sail-cloth- for the purpose of stopping the hole in her side; but the oars were broken in the attempt and the boats drifted away, eventually arriving on the neighboring shore with their occupants in safety. Large quantities of wreckage were loosened as the steamer went down, and the passengers seized- upon any object that would keep them afloat. In. the cargo was a drove of cattle and the struggling animals were predipitated into the water among the passengers. Many found a precarious hold on their backs. A large piece of the hurricane deck became detached at the moment when the steamer went down, and on this the heroic Captain Wilson (who himself lost his life) gathered more than fifty people and navigated the improvised raft towards the shore at Winnetka. The raft ran on a sandbar at some distance from the shore and went to pieces, and most of those who had so nearly reached a place of safety were lost in the boiling waves. The wreckage from the scene of the disaster dfifted ashore in great quantities at a point near where the Winnetka water tower now stands and was scattered along the beach for miles to the south., The bluffs' at Winnetka are some twenty or thirty feet in height and below them is a narrow beach, in some places completely submerged by the surf. When, in the gray of the morning, the survivors neared the shore the residents of the neighborhood came to the edge of the bluffs in great numbers ready to assist in the work of rescue. "The. unfortunate passengers seemed to come safely to the point where the waves broke on the shore," relates an eye witness of the scene, "but unless assistance was then at hand they were carried back by the undertow. The only persons I saw rescued were saved by some one from the shore running out into the surf with long branches hastily cut from trees near at hand. These branches would be grasped by the ones in distress, and, once over the critical spot, they were safe." All that day portions of the wreck, with the unfortunate survivors clinging to them, continued to come within view of the hundreds of spectators who lined the bluffs. Often a survivor was seen holding to some support which was torn from his grasp in the surf, and he would be immediately swept back and drowned. At some places the waves beat directly against the face of the bluffs, and the survivors could be seen helplessly drifting to almost certain death. It was at such points that some of the brave rescuers would let themselves down by ropes held by those above, and when possible seize a person as he came within reach, too often in vain. Many of the students from the Northwestern University and Garrett Biblical Institute at Evanston joined in the work of rescue. One of them, Edward W. Spencer, was successful in saving the lives of seventeen men and women. Others among the students and townspeople performed heroic deeds in this rescue work. For days floating debris and bodies from the wreck continued to be washed up on the beach, and such of the latter as were not claimed by friends were given a decent burial. Out of 400 passengers who left Chicago the night before only about one-fourth of the whole number were saved.. Mr. Spencer, whose daring deeds of rescue attracted the attention of the whole country at the time, is still living in. California in broken health,. never having recovered from the terrible strain of that day's work. That was before the days when medals for life saving were given by the government, and Mr. Spencer received no other recognition than the applause of his friends and neighbors. But lately a movement has been started by Evanston people having for its object the passage of an Act of Congress to besto.v a medal, even at this late day, on Mr. Spencer for his heroic work. In the earjy "fifties" the people everywhere were immensely interested in railroad building. T- heir imaginations were all on fire when considering the future development of the country, and railroads proposed were to be built over the great routes of trade. In the previous decade lines had been opened in various parts of the State, and the pioneer residents of the North Shore were anxiously looking the time when a line would be built from Chicago to the north. Major Mulford used. 'to stand at the door of his house, and, looking towards the flats between his house and the opposite ridge, would say to his neighbors, "Some. day, my friends, you will see the iron horse following the path along this valley." In fact the line was built precisely where he had indicated. Men s minds were keyed up expectantly for the advent of the railroad. Few had seen one in operation, but the people longed passionately for its arrival among them. The enthusiasm with which every project for railroad building was received by the people is scarcely conceivable in these days when railroads, their managers and their affairs generally, are the targets for every man's abuse and criticism. Counties all over the State freely issued bonds in aid of new railroad projects, and the National government granted to the Illinois Central Railroad every alternate section of land along its entire line from one end of the State to the other. Late in the fall of 1854 the Chicago & Milwaukee Railroad was completed as far as Waukegan, and in the following year trains were running over the entire distance from Chicago to Milwaukee. This road and others were merged many years later and became a part of the great system of the Chicago & Northwestern Railway. Lake Forest began its existence in 1856. In the previous year a number of Chicago gentlemen, among 'whom were H. M. Thompson, Dr. C. H. Quinlan, David J. Lake, Rev. R. W. Patterson, and others, had formed an association to establish at some point in the vicinity of Chicago, a college and other kindred institutions under the auspices of the Presbyterian denomination. A location was decided upon and the Lake Forest Association was organized February 28, 1856. The beautiful situation of Lake Forest attracted a fine class of residents, and in the year 1857 a building was erected for the academy the purpose of which was the preparation of young men for college. "Ferry Hall," for a. young ladies' seminary, was completed in 1869, and a building for Lake Forest College was completed in 1876. These three institutions, the Academy, Ferry Hall and Lake Forest College, are affiliated under the name of Lake Forest University. Lake Forest is laid out on a plan similar to a public park with many winding driveways, and is the place of residence of a large number of Chicago's well-to-do business and professional men. The height of the Lluffs there is at some points eighty feet above the lake and are intersected by picturesque ravines. Like Evanston the University is fortunate in being provided with a charter which prohibits the liquor traffic within the limits of the city of Lake Forest. I have not space within the limits of this address to speak of the glorious record made by the people of the North Shore in that period of their history covered by the four years of the Civil war, when the martial spirit was awakened among them and great numbers of theiryoung men flocked to the standard, of their country. It would be interesting to treat of this period and to give some account of the young soldiers who honorably bore their part in many campaigns and on many battle fields. The life and activities of our people in the sueceeding "piping times of peace," the growth of movements, religious and intellectual, that here found a fruitful soil-are worthy of extended historical treatment. The men and women who have been identified with causes of world-wide fame and importance, and who have attained to eminence and renown in scholarship. reform, literature and statesmanship, might -well occupy our attention and interest. But we have seen enough in this brief and inadequate sketch to demonstrate that whatever of success we have had, and our measure has been by no means insignificant, is due, not only to the courage and determination of the men of these pioneer times, but far more to the fortitude and constancy of those noble. women, who, in the formative period of our community life, distinguished themselves by their unshrinking loyalty and devotion.