History of Jo Daviess 1904

Early Settlement Jo Davies County

It is not known, and cannot definitely be ascertained, who were the first occupants of the territory within the bounds of what is now Jo Daviess County.

It is more than probable that what is now known as Galena River was discovered by the French trader Pierre Le Sueur, who is said to have visited the mines long before any permanent settlement was made. That lead-mines existed near the site of the present city of Galena prior to 1810 is fairly well established; but they were worked by the Indians and the product of the mines were used only for the purpose of making bullets. It is also probable that traders and trappers made annual visits to the mines near Galena prior to 1820. There is on file with the Secretary of State at Springfield an old map, published in 1820, wherein Galena River is named Mine River; but just how it came to be called Mine River is not definitely known, and it is more than probable that many people visited the mines who left no record of their visit.late John Lorrain, in his life-time, published a short history of Jo Daviess County, in which he says that, "in 1820, one Jesse Shull and Samuel Muir opened a trading-post near the present site of the city of Galena, which was then called January's Point, and by this name was known to the early settlers. The supposition is that, prior to this time, one Thomas H. January, a Pennsylvanian, had a log smelting-furnace somewhere within the limits of Galena, but just where it was it is now impossible to ascertain.

It is probable, also, that Julian Dubuque, after whom the city of Dubuque, Iowa, was named, visited the mines of Galena prior to 1820. It is reasonably certain that the first settlement in the county was made on the banks of Galena River and was occasioned by the mines, but where the first location was is not known and cannot be definitely ascertained. An old copy of the Gazetteer of Illinois and Missouri; published in 1822, speaks of a small stream twenty miles below Dubuque's mine and about seventy above Rock River, as emptying into the Mississippi, the bank of which stream and the hills are filled with lead-ore of the best quality; and that three miles below the mines is a trader's village, consisting of ten or twelve cabins, and that, at this point, the ore is smelted and sent by boats to New Orleans. It is probable that the trader's village above spoken of was afterwards known as Portage, which is near the junction of the Illinois Central Railroad with the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy and the Chicago Great Western, in Section 35, Town 28, Range 1 West, and being in West Galena. It is claimed that Col. George Davenport, agent of the American Fur Company trading with the Sacs and Foxes, occupied a trading-post at Portage, but just how long he remained there is not known. It is also claimed that the post was afterwards occupied in 1821 by Amos Farrar of the firm of Davenport, Farrar & Farnam, agents of the American Fur Company, but this does not rest upon any recorded evidence. Little attention was at first paid to its agriculture, the mines being the attraction and, like all mining camps, few left any record of their location there.

In the years 1822 and '23, emigrants of a more permanent character began to flock to the mines. Among them were a Dr. Samuel C. Muir, Thomas H. January, Amos Farrar, Jesse W. Shull, Francois Barthillier, A. P. Van Matre, D. G. Bates, John Connell, John Ray, James Johnson and others. It is claimed that a Mrs. Adney was the first white woman who came to the mines and located in Galena. In 1824 Lieut. Martin Thomas was appointed Superintendent of the mines on the Upper Mississippi, and authorized to grant leases and permits to smelters and miners, and to farmers. provided they did not interfere with mining interests. It is claimed that the first white child born in Jo Daviess County was James Smith Hunt, who as born on the 9th day of October, 1824.

There is a fairly well authenticated tradition though not sufficient to amount to a certainty that a white man married an Indian woman, built a log cabin and did some farming near he mouth of the Sinsiniwa River in Jo Daviess County, in the year 1810; but just who he was or where he came from it is impossible to ascertain. Tradition also has it that his squaw-wife informed him that her tribe had determined to kill him, and warned him to flee: but that he refused to heed the warning and was massacred, and that his bones lie buried somewhere near the mouth of the Sinsiniwa River.

From the best information obtainable, it could appear that the first permanent settlement made in Jo Daviess County was upon Lots 10, 11 and 12 in Block 5, east side of Galena River--which lots are directly south the Chicago & Northwestern depot and directly west of the passenger depot of the Illinois Central Railroad--and that the person asking such permanent location was Francois Barthillier (which has been corrupted into Bouthillier and that a street running from said lots up past the residence of General Grant was named after him.  It seems probable that he made such location about the year 1819.  He was an Indian trader, and , a year or so afterwards, moved further north.  It was not for some years after this that Jo Daviess County began to have permanent settlers in any great numbers.  Space will not permit me to give in detail the names of all the settlers who became permanent inhabitants after the year 1820, and no complete list of the the same is obtainable.
Jo Davies County In Transition
The territory of which Jo Daviess forms a part was formerly claimed by France. Following the battle on the Plains of Abraham, near Quebec, on the 13th of September, 1759, between the French commanded by Montcalm and the English under Wolfe, and as a consequence of that battle, Jo Daviess County, which was then unnamed, passed to the control of the British Commonwealth. At the close of the Revolutionary War, by the treaty of 1783, it was ceded to the United States and, as a result of Col. George Rogers Clark's conquest of Illinois in 1778, was claimed by Virginia. The General Assembly of Virginia on the 20th of October, 1783, passed an act authorizing the delegates of that State to convey to the United States, in Congress assembled, all the right of the State of Virginia to the territory northwest of Ohio river.

Thomas Jefferson, Samuel Hardy, Arthur Lee and James Monroe, having been appointed delegates for the Commonwealth of Virginia in the Congress of the United States, on the 1st day of March, 1784, in the name, and for and on behalf of the Commonwealth of Virginia, conveyed, transferred, assigned and made over unto the United States in Congress, then assembled, and for the benefit of said States--Virginia inclusive--all right, title and claim, as well of the soil and of jurisdiction which the said Commonwealth of Virginia had to the territory or tract of country situate, lying and being to the northwest of the river Ohio.

On July 13, 1787, Congress, sitting under the Articles of Confederation, passed an act for the government of the Territory of the United States Northwest of the River Ohio, which is commonly known as the Ordinance of 1787. Article 5 of said Act provided that not less than three, nor more than five States should be formed in said Territory; that the western State in said Territory should be bounded by the Mississippi River, the Ohio and the Wabash River, a direct line drawn from the Wabash and Post Vincennes, due north to the Territorial line between the United States and Canada, and by said. Territorial line to the Lake of the Woods and Mississippi River. This included the whole of Illinois, all but a small portion of Wisconsin, a part of Michigan and a part of Minnesota. It will be observed that no name was given to said Territory by said ordinance. It was expressly provided by said ordinance that Congress should have authority to form one or two states in that part of said Territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan.

On the 3d day of February, 1809, Congress passed an act with reference to said Western Territory, which provided as follows: that from and after the first day of March next, all that part of Indiana Territory which lies west of the Wabash, River and a direct line drawn from said Wabash River and Post Vincennes due north to the territorial line between the United States and Canada, shall, for the purpose of temporary government, constitute a separate Territory and be called Illinois.

On the 18th of April, 1818, Congress passed an act enabling the people of Illinois to form a State government. The first Constitution of Illinois was adopted August 26, 1818, and Illinois became a State on the 3d day of December, 1818. On the 17th of February, 1827, is the first mention made, in the law, with reference to Jo Daviess County being a separate and distinct corporation. On that day a law was passed by the Legislature of Illinois, Section 1 of which provided as follows: All that tract or country lying within the following boundaries, to-wit: Beginning on the northwest corner of the State, thence down the Mississippi River to the northern line of the Military Tract; thence east with said line to the Illinois River; thence north to the northern boundary line of this State; thence west with said boundary line to the place of beginning, shall constitute a county; and, to perpetuate the memory of Col. Joseph Hamilton Daviess, who fell in the battle of Tippecanoe gallantly charging upon the enemy at the head of his corps, the said county shall be called Jo Daviess." It is a little difficult to locate the first territorial boundaries of the county from the above description, as there does not exist any authentic map of the Military Tract-or at least any authentic map which is of record. A tracing of a map is on file in the General Land Office showing the area in Illinois between the Mississippi and Illinois Rivers, in which, by act of Congress of May 6, 1812, all military lands were to be located; but said map has no certification of authenticity, save a pencil note by the Surveyor General, that the map was received at the General Land Office November 11, 1817, and there is no evidence in the Land Office that the northern boundary in said map has ever been surveyed or established. The tracing of the map above referred to extends to and includes Township 15, Ranges I to 6 West, inclusive.

Assuming this as the northern boundary of the Military Tract, the first boundary of Jo Daviess County would commence at the northwest corner of the State on the State line between Illinois and Wisconsin above the city of East Dubuque, thence down the Mississippi River to the southwest corner of what is now Rock Island County; thence east, striking the Illinois River at La Salle; thence north, striking the State line north of Rockton in the County of Winnebago.

There would be included in said territory all of what is now Rock Island County, the northern portion of Henry County, the northern portion of Bureau County, a portion of La Salle County, the greater part of Lee County, all of Whiteside County, all of Carroll County, the greater portion of Ogle County, all of Stephenson County, the greater portion of Winnebago County and all of Jo Daviess County as now formed. Through the courtesy of Thomas McNeil, druggist, of the City of Galena, I have been shown a map now in his possession, which was published in 1830, in which the boundaries of Jo Daviess County are given as embracing all that part of Illinois lying north and west of Rock River. The northern boundary of Jo Daviess County, as shown by this map, very nearly coincides with the boundary as established by act of the Legislature of Illinois, as above set forth. Before passing to the next act of the Legislature bearing upon the territorial boundary of Illinois, it may be well to give a short Sketch of Colonel Daviess, after whom the county was named.

He was born in Bedford County, Va., March 4, 1774, but moved with his parents to Lincoln County, Ky., in 1779. He was given an excellent classical education, was admitted to the bar in 1795, and located in Danville, that State, where he entered upon a remarkably brilliant career and soon attained a high position at the bar. It is said that he had many eccentricities; that, instead of riding the circuit as other lawyers did, he would shoulder his rifle and range the woods from town to town, usually appearing in court in hunting costume. In 1799, by reason of his acting as second in a duel in which one of the principals was killed, he fled to avoid prosecution, and for some time was a fugitive from justice; but that, hearing that his principal had been arrested, he returned, appeared in court as his counsel and secured his acquittal. It is claimed that he was the first Western lawyer that ever argued a case in the United States Supreme Court; that he appeared before that tribunal in a hunting costume and gained his suit. He married a sister of Chief Justice Marshall and became United States Attorney for Kentucky, in which capacity, in 1806, he moved for an order requiring Aaron Burr to appear and answer to a charge of levying war against a nation with which the United States was at peace. Burr appeared in court with Henry Clay as his counsel and boldly courted investigation. Witnesses could not be procured to sustain the charge; and such was the magnetic influence of Burr and the rising popularity of Henry Clay, that this act almost destroyed the popularity of Daviess

In 1811 he joined the army of Gen. William Henry Harrison as Major of Kentucky Voluntary Dragoons, and served in the campaign against the Northwestern Indians. In the Battle of Tippecanoe, seeing that an exposed angle of Gen. Harrison's lines was likely to give way before a determined assault, he led a cavalry charge against the savages at that point. The charge was completely successful, but Daviess fell shot through the breast. Aside from being a fine scholar, an able lawyer and a gallant soldier, he was also an author, and published a work entitled: A View of the President's Conduct concerning the Conspiracy of 1806." It is supposed that he was of Welsh descent, but of this little is known.

The Legislature of the State of Illinois, on the 16th day of January, 1836, passed an act the third section of which reads as follows: "All that tract of country within the following line and boundaries, to-wit: Beginning at a point on the Mississippi River where the northern boundary line of Township twenty-two strikes said river; running thence east along said line to the dividing line between Ranges 3, 7 and 8 of the Fourth Principal Meridian; thence north along- said boundary line to the northern boundary of This State; thence west with said line to the Mississippi River; thence down the Mississippi River to the place of beginning, shall constitute Jo Daviess County. The boundary of Jo Daviess, as thus established, would take in the whole of Carroll County, a part of Ogle County, the west half of Stephenson and the whole of Jo Daviess County, as now formed.

Afterwards several legislative enactment's were passed creating Carroll, Stephenson and Ogle Counties, which confined Jo Daviess County to its present limits, and which may be properly described as follows: Commencing at the extreme northwest boundary of the State at the northwest corner of fractional Section 17, Range 2 West; thence south along the Mississippi River to the south boundary of Section 31, Township 26 North, Range 2 East; thence east to the southeast corner of Section 33, Township 26 North, Range 5 East; thence north to the State line between Illinois and Wisconsin; thence west to the place of beginning. The general boundaries of this area may be described as follows: On the south by Carroll County, on the east by Stephenson County, on the north by Wisconsin and on the west by the Mississippi River.

Physical Characteristics of Jo Daviess County
The physical characteristics of Jo Daviess County are peculiar and, in some respects, rather remarkable. The land generally is rolling and, as a rule, there is not a great quantity of what is known as prairie land. The general dip of the county is toward the south and west, generally terminating in a high bluff long the banks of the Mississippi River. It contains within its borders the highest point in the State of Illinois. Many, of the hills of the county are conical in form and one of them, called Pilot Knob has been a mark for pilots on the Mississippi River ever since that stream has been navigated along the borders of the county.

Many of its hills or mounds are capped with Dolomitic Niagara Limestone. Under this lies the green and blue shale and limestone of the Cincinnati Group, but the great bed-rock of the county is the Galena Limestone. The principal streams in the county are the Galena River, Smallpox Creek, the Sinsinawa River, Plum River, Apple River (the latter, with its branches, being the longest river in the county), Big Rush Creek, and Little and Big Menominee. Nearly all of these streams flow in a southwesterly direction and water nearly the entire county. The Sinsinawa River flows through portions of Vinegar Hill, the Menominee through the west part of Rawlins and West Galena Towns. The Galena River flows through Council Hill, Vinegar Hill, along the east portion of the Town of Rawlins, and divides East and West Galena. The Smallpox flows through Guilford, East Galena and Rice. Apple River, with its branches (one of which is called Mill Creek, another Hell's Branch, others Clear Creek, Wolf Creek, Coon Creek and Welch Creek), waters the Towns of Scales' Mound, Apple River, Guilford, Thompson, Warren, Rush, Nora, Woodbine, Elizabeth and Hanover. Big Rush Creek, with its branches, waters Stockton, Rush, Woodbine and Derinda. Plum River, with its branches, waters Stockton, Ward's Grove, Pleasant Valley and Berreman.

So that every township within the county has some stream, either rising within its borders or passing through it, which leads directly to the Mississippi River, generally flowing into that stream in a southwesterly direction. Many of these streams--namely, the Sinsinawa. Galena River, Smallpox. and Apple River-were formerly navigable for a considerable distance from their mouths. The soil of Jo Daviess County is generally a black loam, and there is no kind of grain or fruit that can be grown in this latitude which the county cannot produce. A large percentage of the timber of the county is oak, although other varieties exist to a considerable extent; but these are now being rapidly cut off for fuel and railroad ties, and, unless such destruction ceases, it will not be many years before Jo Daviess County will be almost void of timber.

It has been noted that, for several years past, timber that has been left standing has, for some cause, ceased to live; but what that cause is has not, as yet, been fully determined. Some attribute it to a small insect, while others claim it is due to a lack of moisture in the soil; but, whatever the cause, steps should be taken to prevent its further ravages and thus protect the timber from entire destruction. The Township of Menominee was formerly heavily wooded, with few farms within its borders; now the timber, excepting along the bluffs, has been almost entirely destroyed and the land is used for agricultural purposes. And what is said of Menominee is true of every other town in the county. Jo Daviess County also abounds in mines, of which we shall speak more in detail later on, and it is claimed that lead ore, to a greater or less extent, has been found in every town in the county. The county is peculiarly adapted to the raising of all kinds of stock, as both upland and meadow grass can be found in every town in the county. For agricultural purposes and mineral wealth Jo Daviess County has not its superior in the State. The county has never been thoroughly examined by geologists, but there seems now to be an awakening to its vast resources, and there is reason to believe it will soon take its position as one of the wealthiest counties in the State.

Nature has been lavish of her gifts county; some of the most beautiful scenery along the banks of the Mississippi is to be within its borders; untold wealth lies beneath its surface, while its soil will produce in abundance anything that will grow in this latitude; and, for stock-raising, it is not excelled by any county of like size in the State.

Mining in Joe Daviess County

There is no question but that the early settlement of Jo Daviess County was caused by its mines. Just when those mines were first discovered is shrouded in mystery, although it is certain that a Frenchman by the name of LeSueur saw the mines as early as the month of August, 1700. He was on a trading expedition to the Indians in what is now the State of Minnesota and, in his report of that expedition, he says he discovered a small river entering the Mississippi on the right side and describes it as a river running from the north, but it turns to the northeast. On the right of said river, seven leagues from the Mississippi River, is a lead mine, and he named the small river, thus discovered by him, the River of the Mines.

This river was, beyond doubt, what is now known as Galena River. The writer has examined a map of the State of Illinois which was published in 1820, and Galena River is named on said map as the River of Mines. The geography of the country was then but little known. In 1712 Louis XIV of France granted in perpetuity to one Anthony Crozat and his heirs, all the property of the lead mine country of Louisiana, which was then supposed to include the mines of what is now included within the bounds of Jo Daviess County. The best evidence obtainable points to the fact that the mine known in early history as The Buck Mine, located on Section 8 in West Galena, on lands now owned by the Hughlett estate, was the first discovered, and is doubtless the one seen by LeSueur. It has been worked more or less up to the present time.

From a short historical account of the lead mines of the Northwest, published by the New England; Galena Mining Company, other early mines near Galena are mentioned as follows: The Harris Leads; Tomlin Burrichter; The Tomlin; The Doe; The Krengle Mine; The Gaffner Range; The Hog Range; The Graves; Comstock and Rosemeyer; Wallo Quick; Sanders Co.; Molitore; Crumbacker; Evans Adams; A. C. Davis; Armbruster; Co.; Ottawa Diggings; Drum, Rare Co.; Benninger Co.; P. Smith Co.;. Hostetter; Co.; Dueer CO.; Allendorf Co.; Tom Evans; Bolton; Stephen Marsden; The Allenrath; The Egan; The J. E. Comstock; Britten Wilkins; The Cady Range; The Roberts Range; The William Richards Range; The Wilcox Co. Range. All these, with many others of lesser note, were within a short distance of the present limits of the City of Galena, and were all good producing mines.

In addition to the above there were valuable mines located in the Township of Vinegar Hill, Council Hill, Rice and Elizabeth the latter, however, being a later discovery than those first named.  At a still later date valuable mines were discovered in the Township of Rice, better known as the Black Jack Mine and the New California Diggings, and these have been worked more or less continuously up to the present time. It is rather remarkable that, up to within recent years, all of the mines in Jo Daviess County were worked for lead ore exclusively. The vast quantities of zinc ore, which seems to underlie all lead ore in Jo Daviess County, was considered a worthless ore a despised material and, as the miners used to express it, it burned the mineral out. It is to be regretted that no accurate account of the output of the lead ore from said mines has been preserved, and any statement of such output would be largely speculative; but -it can in be said with truth that the product has been very large.

Prof. Whitney, who is perhaps the best authority on-the lead-mining region, states that, from 1853 to 1859, the out-put of lead-ore from the mines of Jo Daviess County was thirty million pounds. The late Henry Green in 1875 stated that, up to that time, the out-put of the Elizabeth mines, alone, had been at least seventy-five million pounds. The late H. H. Houghton, in his work, entitled, The Marsden Mines (now known as the Black-Jack Mines), states that the out-put of the mines of Vinegar Hill has now reached the enormous sum of one hundred million pounds.

A writer from Galena, whose name I have not been able to ascertain, in Harper's publication for the month of May, 1866, states that the value of the lead ore, produced by the mines of Jo Daviess County up to that time, was $40,000,000. During the early history of the mines, ore was sold as low as $8 per thousand; and it is on record that a thousand pounds of mineral has been exchanged for a barrel of flour. In one instance, at least, five thousand pounds were given for a barrel of flour. The highest price per thousand that has been known to have been paid was $110, which was during the War of the Rebellion-and this price was paid only for a short time. Since the year 1878 the average price of lead-ore per thousand has not exceeded $30, and it is doubtful if it has equaled that figure. It is now (1902) $22 per thousand. The ore is found in veins and flat sheets, -the horizontal veins being known to geologists as gash veins. It is found at various depths from the surface as far down as explorations have been made. The principal veins run east and west, and are known in the mines as Easts and Wests; other veins run north and south, and are known in the mines as Norths and Souths. The north and south veins generally cross the east and west ranges at right angles. Besides these there are what are known as 11 quarterings, which usually cross the east and west crevices diagonally. Some of these quarterings, so-called, run from the northeast to the southwest, and some from the southeast to the northwest; these are locally called either ten o'clocks or four o'clocks, according to the direction they assume. There are also smaller crevices, which usually cross the east and west ranges in various directions; these are locally called swithers, though just why they are so called we have not been able to ascertain. The ore found in the crevices that run east and west is generally known as cog mineral; that found in the veins running north and south is generally of a sheet formation. It is a remarkable fact that no ore is found in any of the crevices without the same having been crossed by some other crevice, and the local expression is, you will not find lead ore until you strike a crossing. Just why this is so is not known.

The first work done in the mines was. beyond doubt, performed by the squaws, and their method of extracting the ore from the ground where it was found attached to the rock, was to build great fires and, when the rock had been sufficiently heated, throw water upon it, thus causing it to crack and enable it to be more easily worked. It may be added that the method of working the mines is still rather primitive. The Indians reduced the ore by piling up wood, putting the ore thereon and setting the wood on fire, thus melting the ore. Many such places, called Indian furnaces, may still be found in the county.

When the white miners first came they reduced the ore in much the same manner, only more skillfully, and their furnaces were called log furnaces. Afterwards the Drummond furnace was introduced, also the cupola and the blast furnace-the latter being nothing more than the old Scotch Hearth, a full description of which is subjoined, taken from Judge Shaw's geological work of Jo Daviess County. The hearth consists of a box of cast-iron, two feet square, one foot high, open at top, with the sides and bottom two inches thick. To the top of the front edge is affixed a sloping shelf, or hearth, called the work-stone, used for spreading the materials of the charge upon, as occasionally becomes necessary during smelting, and also for the excess of molten lead to flow down. For the latter purpose a groove, one-half an inch deep and an inch wide, runs diagonally across the work-stone. A ledge, one inch in thickness and height, surrounds the work-stone on all sides except that towards the sole of the furnace. The hearth slopes from behind forward, and immediately below the front edge of it is placed the receptacle or melting pot. An inch from the bottom, in the posterior side of the box, is a hole two inches in diameter, through which the current or blast of air is blown from the bellows. The furnace is built under an immense chimney thirty to thirty-five feet high and ten feet wide at its base. Behind the base of the chimney is the bellows, which is propelled by a waterwheel, the tuyere, or point of the bellows, entering at the hole in the back of the box. The fuel, which consists of light wood, coke, and charcoal, is thrown in against the tuyere and kindled, and the ore is placed upon the fuel to the top of the box. The blast of air in the rear keeps the fire burning, and, as the reservoir, or box, is filled with molten lead, the excess flows down the grooved hearth into the melting pot, under which a gentle fire is kept, and the lead is ladled from it into the molds as is convenient. Before adding a new charge, the blast is turned off, the charge already in is turned forward upon the work-stone, more fuel is cast in, and the charge is thrown back with the addition of fresh ore upon the wood. The combustion of the sulphur in the ore produces a large amount of the heat required for smelting. The furnace is thus kept in operation sixteen hours out of the twenty-four.

The ore is of different degrees of purity, but the purest galena does not yield, on an average, over 65 per cent of lead from the first process of smelting. The gray slag is very valuable, though the lead procured from it is harder than that 'of the first smelting. There is left about 75,000 of gray slag from each 1,000,000 pounds of (>re. The slag furnace is erected under the same roof with the Scotch Hearth, and has a chimney of its own a few feet from that of the hearth, and the blast 'is secured from the same water-power by an additional blast-pipe driven by the same wheel. It consists of a much larger reservoir, built of limestone cemented and lined with clay, with a cast-iron door in front heavily barred with iron. It will burn out so as to require repairs in about three months. Open at the top, the slag and fuel are thrown in promiscuously. Under the iron door is an escape, and below it is the slag-pot. This is an oblong iron basin about a foot in depth, with one-third of its length partitioned off to receive the lead, which sinks as it escapes, while the slag, being lighter, flows in a flame-colored stream forward and falls into a reservoir that is partly filled with water, which cools the slag as it is plunged therein. As the reservoir fills, a workman shovels the scoriae into a hand-barrow and wheels it off. This scoriae is black slag and worthless, the lead having now been entirely extracted. The smelter now and then throws a shovel-full of -,ray slag into the furnace, which casts up beautiful parti-colored flames, while the strong sulphurous odor, the red-hot stream of slag, with the vapor arising from the tub 'wherein the hissing slag is plunged, the sooty smelters 'and the hot air of the furnace room, suggest a thought of the infernal regions. Outside, the wealth of pigs-not in the least porcine gives one a sort of covetous desire, that, if indulged in, we are taught leads directly to said regions.

The Scotch Hearth requires less fuel than any other furnace. It blows out in from six to twelve hours, while the Drummond furnace may be kept in operation night and day. The Scotch Hearth, or blast furnace, is still the one most commonly used in the lead mines. None of these furnaces were able to get all of the lead out of the ore. The father of the writer owned and operated a blast furnace on the Sinsinawa from 1852 until 1875 ' and during part of that time the writer kept his father's books, and the highest percentage that he ever knew to be made in his father's furnace was 74 per cent, and his father's furnace was probably an average. It is doubtful if the average percentage of lead extracted from the ore by any of the furnaces that were ever operated in Jo Daviess County would exceed sixty-eight, although it is known that a much greater percentage of lead exists in the ore, and it is probable that, if all the lead that exists in the ore could be saved, the average would reach eighty-five per cent. From an old Directory of Galena, published in 1848 by E. S. Seymour, I gather that, when the Directory was published, there were twenty-four smelting furnaces within the county of Jo Daviess, but I am unable to give the location of all.

It may not be amiss in this connection to state that, in the early history of the mines, Illinoisans ran up the Mississippi River in boats in the spring, worked in the mines during the warm weather, and returned to their homes for the winter. This was supposed to be after the manner of a certain kind of fish, and for this reason they were called suckers by Missourians. Very soon, however, many miners from Missouri came to seek their fortune in the new El Dorado. A boat-load of these, landing at the wharf in Galena, a resident miner sang, Hello! Missouri has taken a puke. Ever after that Illinoisans were called Suckers, while Missourians were called Pukes-names by which they will be called by the vulgar for some time to come.

It is also a remarkable fact, when you take into consideration that ore has been discovered in every one of the twenty-three townships in the county, what a small portion of the county has been explored for ore or prospected, as the, mining term is. As compared with what is unexplored the explored portion is very insignificant. It can be stated with certainty that, if all the mines in the county were placed side by side, they could not cover more than a section of land, or six hundred and forty acres; and some idea can be gathered from this, to justify the assertion that untold quantities of ore still lie under the surface of Jo Daviess County. It can be stated with certainty, that, so far, little or nothing has been done more than surface mining.

It is also a little remarkable that the zinc ore (called by the miners, dry-bone and blackjack), which, in the earliest history of the county, was a despised material, is now being sought for more than lead ore the reason being that. while not as valuable as the lead ore, the output, prospectively, is much greater, and companies are being formed to develop the zinc mines. A Wisconsin Company is now operating a zinc mine on the lands of Oldenburg in Section 1, about three miles from the City of Galena, which bids fair to be a mine of great value. The company is operating the mine with a view of reaching deposits much lower than have heretofore been developed, and the prospects are that the enterprise will be richly rewarded. At the California Mines in Rice Township, Harris Co., of Chicago, are developing a mine. which promises large returns, in both lead and zinc ore.

Within the City' of Galena, Wm. Waters has been working a mine for the past two or three years, and has been rewarded with good returns in the shape of zinc ore. It is claimed that his mine, which runs entirely through the corporate limits of the City of Galena from west to east, is a true Fisher vein. His mine has been worked down to the water-level only, but has been worked at that level for a distance of over half a mile. The product has been largely zinc ore, although the mine also produces some lead ore, and it is claimed with a strong probability of truth, that far greater deposits exist -in those mines below the water level than have yet been developed. Mr. Waters claims that he can walk on ore at the water-level for a distance of over six hundred feet.

The mines in Elizabeth Township seem to have taken on a new lease of life, but they as yet produce only lead ore, although many believe-and with good ground for such belief -that, at a lower depth under the lead ore, exists a still greater deposit of zinc ore. We shall treat of the mines of that township more at length when we specifically speak of the township. As before stated, so far the mines of the county have been worked only to a limited extent; and in no sense have they been worked to any great depth, as no mine of which the writer has any knowledge has been worked to the depth of two hundred feet. The most of the ore has been taken from a depth of less than one hundred feet from the surface. It can be safely asserted that, nowhere in the United States are there mines which offer a fairer, return for capital invested, than the mines of Jo Daviess County. Thus far mining in Jo Daviess County has been prosecuted by men with limited means, and in no instance has any mine been developed to any great depth.

In the judgment of those whose opinion is of value, with a larger use of capital and more adequate machinery, the mines of Jo Daviess County would be found to be practically inexhaustible. Besides lead and zinc, iron ore to a considerable extent has been found in the township of Derinda, and traces of copper have also been discovered.

In one locality the writer has personally picked up specimens of quartz, and has seen black sand, such as is found in the placer gold mines in the West, washed out of the ground, although he saw no gold. Mixed with the ores in the county is an element called sulphur, but which is really a Sulphide. Until recently it had no commercial value, but now it is worth six dollars per ton, and is used in the manufacture of sulphuric acid. Arsenic is also found mixed with the ores; but as yet has no market value. In fact, no effort has been made to save it.
Judiciary and the Bar

It is exceedingly difficult to get accurate information with reference to the early courts of Jo Daviess County. The mining interests overshadowed all others, and before the organization of the county many disputes were settled by arbitration, of which no record has been preserved. When the county was first organized in 1827, Galena was named as the county seat. The territory comprised in the first bounds of the county was so vast-and the county-seat being placed in the northwest corner of this territory-it was not until several years elapsed before anything like system could be maintained. The county at first was made a part of the First Judicial Circuit and the first term of the Circuit Court ever held in the county was held in June, 1828, by three Justices of the Peace, although a County Commissioner's Court was held in Galena on the 18th of June, 1827. the names of the Justices who held the first term of the Circuit Court were John Connolly, Hugh R. Coulter and Abner Field. Another session of the court was held in October, 1828, at which five Justices presided. These Justices sat as Circuit Judges and must have been impressed with their official dignity, as the record discloses that several attorneys were fined for contempt of court, and the fines were probably just, as the lawyers unquestionably had a profound contempt for the legal ability of the Justices of the Peace before whom they were then compelled to practice. In May, 1829, the Hon. Richard M. Young presided as Circuit Judge and, in 1835, was succeeded by Stephen T. Logan, who was, in his day, one of the most profound lawyers. Logan was succeeded by Thomas Ford in 1836, who was followed by Daniel Stone. Stone was legislated out of office with the other Circuit Judges in 1841, and Judge Thomas C. Browne, of the Supreme Court, was assigned to duty on the Galena Circuit. The administration of the office of Circuit Judge by Judge Browne does not appear to have been a marked success, as many of the attorneys seemed to feel that he favored a lawyer at the bar who was his son-in-law. The late M. Y. Johnson told the writer of a witticism that Thompson Campbell got off at the expense of Judge Browne, which I will relate-not vouching for its truth, however. It seems that Judge Browne , while attempting to cross Galena River, accidentally fell into the stream and came near being drowned. He was relating the circumstance in the presence of Campbell, describing the narrow escape he had had. Campbell retorted: Judge, you were in no danger. Corruption always floats.

Judge Browne continued to preside as Circuit Judge until the adoption of the Constitution of 1848, when he was succeeded by Benjamin R. Sheldon, who held the position of Circuit Judge until elevated to 'the Supreme Bench in 1870. He was succeeded by the Hon. William Brown, of Rockford, who was a far different man from Judge Thomas C. Browne, with whom he has sometimes been confounded. It can be said with truth that the bar of Jo Daviess County has included some of the ablest and most eloquent attorneys that Illinois or any other State can boast. Space will not permit me to name all of  the attorneys who practiced at its bar. Among them were: John Turney, William Smith, James M. Strode, Benjamin Mills, Thomas Ford, Jesse B. Thomas, Thomas Hoyne, Thomas Drummond, Charles S. Hempstead, Joseph P. Hoge, Samuel M. Wilson, E. B. Washburn, John M. Douglass, E. D. Baker and Thompson Campbell. These may all be said to have been the more prominent among the early members of the bar of Jo Daviess County, and many of them rose to great prominence in other fields. Among them all, Thompson Campbell was probably, the most brilliant, witty and eloquent, and it is said of him that, in the trial of a criminal case, he was probably the most eloquent man At that time in the State of Illinois. Jo Daviess County has always held its position as having among its members of the bar those who were leading lawyers of the State. At a later period Wellington Weigley, Robert H. McClellan, Madison Y. Johnson and David Sheean have been among the leading lawyers in Northern Illinois. David Sheean, at this writing (1903), is still in active practice and recognized as one of the leading lawyers of the State.

COUNTY COURT-Thus far I have spoken only of the Circuit Court. Jo Daviess County also has a County Court which seems to have been somewhat of a development. In 1845 the Legislature of Illinois passed an act which may be said to have consolidated all prior acts relating to County Commissioners, which act provided that there should remain in each county of the State, and be established in each county hereafter created, a court of record to be composed of three Commissioners, which court should be styled "The County Commissioner's Court, which Commissioners should be elected by the people. Said court should have a seal and a clerk, and said court was to have jurisdiction in all matters and things concerning the county revenue, and had power to issue all kinds of writs, attachments for contempt, etc. Prior to this act several acts of the Legislature had been passed with reference to County Commissioners' Courts, the first of which was passed on the 22d of March, 1819, before Jo Daviess County was organized. An appeal from said County Commissioners' Court was allowed to the Circuit Court.

On March 4, 1837, an act was passed by the Legislature of Illinois providing for the election of Probate Justices of the Peace, and on March 3, 1845, all former acts were amended and a law passed establishing in each county of the State a Court of Probate, to be composed of one officer to be styled a Probate Justice of the Peace. Said-Probate Justice of the Peace was given all powers conferred by law on Justices of the Peace, and was given further jurisdiction in all cases of debt and assumpsit, expressed or implied, where executors or administrators should be parties to the extent of $1,000. He had power to administer oaths, to issue and grant letters of administration, letters testamentary, letters of guardianship, to *fake (*I do not know if this is the right word to be used here though that is what is in the book) probate of wills, to receive and file inventories, and generally to do all acts necessary to settlement of estates.

On the 12th of February, 1849, an act was passed by the Legislature of the State of Illinois establishing in each of the organized counties of the State a Court of Record, to be styled the County Court of the proper county to be held by and consist of one Judge to be styled the County Judge of the proper county. The same act provided for the election of a Clerk of said County Court. The same act provided for the election of two Justices of the Peace, who should sit with the County Judge as members of the Court for the transaction of county business only, and should have an equal vote with the County Judge on all questions, as the law puts it, "legally and properly before said court. Any two of the three Judges should constitute a quorum to do business. It is related that one of the witty members of the bar of Jo Daviess County, when that act was passed, said that "hereafter the County Court of Jo Daviess County would be composed of 100 Judges, there being one Judge and two ciphers on the bench."

From these acts much confusion arose, and the records do not give us much information that is reliable. Wm. C. Bostwick acted as County Judge from 1849 to 1853; before him Hugh S. Dickey presided. George M. Mitchell was elected County Judge in 1853'and Richard Seal, County Clerk. Mitchell was followed as County Judge by John D. Platt, who held the office until 1861, when Matthew Marvin was elected, he holding the office until 1869, when Richard Seal became County Judge. The pay of the County Judge was $2.50 per day for every day he held court; and this remained the law until the adoption of our present Constitution in 1870, when by that instrument the Board of Supervisors were required to fix the compensation of the County Judge. It may not be improper, in passing, to say that, by the action of the Board of Supervisors, the office of County Judge is not as remunerative as it was thirty years ago--strange as such a statement may be--because prior to 1870, the County Judge was almost continually being allowed compensation for extra service. In 1828, in the month of July, Auburn Field was elected Judge of Probate for the County. He died in June, 1830, and was succeeded by John Turney, who held the office until 1837, when Elijah Charles was elected Judge of Probate. It is uncertain just how long he held the office.

Township Organizaton

On February 17, 1851, an act was passed by the State Legislature providing that, at any general election that may be held in the several counties of the State, the qualified voters in any county might vote for or against township organization, and the County Court, on petition of fifty legal voters of said county, should cause the question to be submitted to the legal voters of the county. If the returns showed a majority in favor of township organization, then the County Court should appoint three commissioners, residents of the county, who should divide the county into towns or townships, making as many towns as there are townships, according to government survey, and the towns should be named in accordance with the expressed wish of the inhabitants of the town; and if there should not be a degree of unanimity as to the name, the commissioners might designate the name. The requisite number of voters having petitioned the County Court, that tribunal called an election to be held in the month of November, 1852, to determine whether or not Jo Daviess County should adopt township organization. The vote being in the affirmative, the County Court, at its December term, 1852, appointed Charles R. Bennet, George N. Townsend and David T. Barr as commissioners to divide the county of Jo Daviess into towns. At the February term of said Court in 1853 the commissioners made a report of their work and divided the county into seventeen towns, which were named as follows: Nora, Courtland, Elizabeth, Jefferson, Thompson, Stockton, Scales, Wards Grove, Pleasant Valley, Mann, Menominee, Derinda, Guilford, Hanover, East Galena, West Galena, Afterwards the Township of Menominee was divided and a new township created called Dunleith. West Galena was also divided at a later period, a new town being created called Rawlins. East Galena was also afterwards divided and a new town created called Washington, which name The Town of Thompson was also divided afterwards, and a new town created called Apple River. Pleasant Valley was also divided and a new town created called Berreman. The Town of Scales was also divided and a new town created called Council Hill and the name Scales was changed to Scales Mound. that of Courtland to Warren and the name Jefferson to Woodbine; so that, at the present writing (1903), Jo Daviess County contains twenty-three towns whose names are as follows: Nora, Elizabeth, Warren, Woodbine, Scales Mound, Rush,Stockton, Thompson Ward's Grove,Pleasant Valley Rice, Derinda, Menominee, Vinegar Hill, Council Hill, Rawlins, Hanover, Dunleith, Apple River, Guilford, East Galena West Galena, Berreman

When East Galena was divided and a new township formed out of its territory, the latter received the name Washington after the first President, but this was afterward changed to Rice, in honor of Henry A. Rice, who settled in the township in 1821, and who died there in 1874. East and West Galena were so named because of the lead ore found within their boundaries. The Township of Mann was named after Harvey Mann, an early settler of the township, who was Chairman of the first Board of Supervisors that ever assembled in Jo Daviess County; but afterwards, by vote of the people, the name of the town was changed from Mann to Vinegar Hill, after a village of that name in Ireland. The Township of Rawlins was named after General John A. Rawlins, formerly chief of Grant's staff.

Guilford was named by General John A. Rawlins, its honored son. The Town of Scales Mound was first named Scales, in honor of an early settler within its borders, but was afterwards changed to Scales Mound the same having reference to one of the highest points of land in the State of Illinois.

Council Hill was so named because, before it was organized into a separate town, there had been a council held with Indian tribes within its borders; and tradition has it that Black Hawk addressed his followers from the bluff just south of Lupton Station on the Illinois Central. The Town of Thompson was named after one of its early settlers by the name of Thompson. When it was first organized into a town, there was a large stream running through it upon the banks of which grew a large number of crab-apple trees, from which the stream took the name of Apple River; and when the town was formed, it took its name from this river.

The Township of Menominee was named after the tribe of Menominee Indians. This name was suggested by James Finley, its first Supervisor. Pleasant Valley was so named because it is practically a valley with fine scenery, and is, as its name implies, a "pleasant valley. It is said that the Town of Berreman was given its name by one A. Mahony , a resident of the township, and that he named it after a. friend of his then living in Tennessee.

Derinda was named after a lady residing in the township at the time the town was organized. Stockton was so named by its inhabitants at the time the town was organized. Its name is said to have been suggested by Alanson Parker, who described it as a beautiful stock country. Ward's Grove is said to have been named in honor of Bernard Ward , who was its first settler, and who owned a fine grove of timber situated within its borders.

The first name of the present Town of Warren was Courtland, which name was suggested by Mr. A. L. Brink to Charles Cole , who was present at the meeting of the Commissioners when the different towns were first named. The first post office in the Township of Courtland was named Warren by Alexander Burnett, and was named after Burnett's native place, which was Warren, Ohio. Afterwards, at the request of a majority of the people of Courtland, it was changed to Warren. The Township of Elizabeth was named in honor of Mrs. Elizabeth Winters , who kept the first hotel within the bounds of the township. Such was her popularity among the people of the township that, when they were called upon to give it a name, they named it Elizabeth in her honor It is probable that the name of the Township of Woodbine has a botanical derivation. There is a plant called the woodbine, the botanical name of which is cissus, which is found wild in woods and thickets and is a vigorous plant supporting itself firmly on trees by means of its radiating tendrils, and it is more than probable that the town of Woodbine was given its name because of this plant.

It is not certain just why the Town of Nora was so called. It is supposed to have been so named by some of the officials of the Illinois Central Railroad, probably after a daughter of one of them. The Town of Rush was named after two streams called Little and Big Rush Creek, which both start in said town, and they are supposed to have derived their names because of their rapid flowage.

In the early 'forties, what is now the Village of Hanover was called Wapello, and there was a post office at that place with J. W. White as postmaster. There was also a post office called Wapello in Iowa, and much confusion arose it, the distribution of mail matter and, at the suggestion of Mr. White, the name of the Jo Daviess County post office was changed from Wapello to Hanover, and when the town was formed it took the name of Hanover from the post office. It will thus be seen that the Town of Hanover owes its name to J. W. White, who still lives within its borders and who is one of its most honored citizens. Dunleith is said to have derived. its name from some town in Scotland.

CIVIL WAR RECORD of JO DAVIES COUNTY

The record made by Jo Daviess County during the War of the Rebellion is an enviable one. To her belongs the proud distinction of having the first man to enlist in the Northwest. This man was Augustus L. Chetlain, afterwards Brevet Major-General of Volunteers, and who at this date (1904) still lives as a citizen of Chicago. When sumter was fired upon, political and religious differences disappeared and a strong desire that the Union should be reserved was almost universal. While it is true that slavery, under another name, once existed in Jo Daviess County, its people were liberty-loving and determined that the Government, as established by its founders, should live, and it is the proud boast of the county, that it furnished the man who commanded the mighty host which composed the Federal Army, and to whom the final surrender of the Confederates was made; and it an be said, to his everlasting honor, that when the rebellion was crushed, he regarded those lately in opposition to the Government as brethren and, in the spirit of the Divine Master, said, "Let us have Peace." Dying on Mount McGregor, looking into the future with prophetic vision, he foretold the era of peace and unity which now pervades the Nation.

It may be doubted if any other single county in the State Furnished as many men who rose to prominence, during the late rebellion, as did Jo Daviess county. The roll of honor includes such names as those of Generals U. S. Grant, John A. Rawlins, John E. Smith, Augustus L. Chetlain, Jasper A. Maltby, John C. Smith, John O. Duer, Alfred T. Smith, W. R. Rowley and Thomas E. Champion; Colonels E. S. Parker, E. D. Kittoe, Scheller DeBuol, Wallace Campbell, D. G. Chapin, Bates Dixon and James Raney; Lieutenant-Colonel George Hicks, Ninety-sixth Illinois Infantry; Majors George S. Avery, Third Missour Cavalry, and Luther H. Cowen and Joshua Van Devert, Forty-Fifth Illinois Infantry.

Official History Jo Davies County

As already set forth, Jo Daviess County was not a separate and distinct corporation until the year 1827; so that those who represented the Territory in Congress only represented the territory of Jo Daviess County in a general way. Shadrach Bond was the first Delegate to Congress from Illinois Territory, serving in the Twelfth and Thirteenth Congresses. He took his seat at the second session of the Twelfth Congress, December 3, 1812, and served until Oct. 3, 1814, when he was appointed Receiver of Public Moneys. Benjamin Stephenson succeeded Bond and took his seat at the third session of the Thirteenth Congress, Nov. 14, 1814, and served during the third session of the Thirteenth and first session of the Fourteenth Congresses, when he also was appointed Receiver of Public Moneys, April 29, 1816. Nathaniel Pope was elected the successor of Benjamin Stephenson, and entered Congress at the second session of the Fourteenth Congress, Dec. 2, 1816, and served during that session and the first session of the Fifteenth Congress, he being the Delegate at the time of the admission of the Territory as a State. It must be remembered that these were only Territorial Delegates, and had only the power of making speeches in Congress; they had no vote.

John McLean was the first Representative in Congress from the State, taking his seat at the second session of the Fifteenth Congress. He was succeeded by Daniel P. Cook in the Sixteenth Congress, which met in December, 1819, and he continued to represent the State during the Sixteenth, Seventeenth, Eighteenth and Nineteenth Congresses, a period of nearly nine years, from December, 1818, until March, 1827. Joseph Duncan succeeded Daniel P. Cook, taking his seat at the first session of the Twentieth Congress, in 1827, and represented the State in the Twentieth, Twenty-first and Twenty-second Congresses, covering the period from 1827 to 1833.

A new apportionment was had under the census of 1830, and the State having been divided into three Districts, Jo Daviess County fell into the Third. Joseph Duncan was again elected to the Twenty-third Congress, but having been elected Governor before the close of his term, resigned his seat in Congress and was succeeded by William L. May, of Springfield, who filled out the unexpired term, afterwards being elected to the Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth Congresses and serving until 1839. May was succeeded by John T. Stuart, of Springfield, who served in the Twenty-sixth and Twenty-seventh Congresses (1839-43).

Under the apportionment of 1843, following the census of 1840, Illinois was divided into seven districts, Jo Daviess being assigned to the Sixth, and for the first time the county was represented by one of its own citizens, Hon. Joseph P. Hoge, of Galena, who represented the District by re-election in the Twenty-eighth and Twenty-ninth Congresses' (1843-47). In 1847 to 1849, Thomas J. Turner, of Freeport, represented Jo Daviess County in the Thirtieth Congress, the county being still a part of the Sixth District.

In the Thirty-first Congress (1849-51), the Sixth District was represented by Edward D. Baker, of Galena. In the Thirty-second Congress (1851-53), the Sixth District was represented by Thompson Campbell, also of Galena.

Under the re-apportionment based upon the census of 1850, Illinois was given nine Congressmen. Jo Daviess County was then placed in the First Congressional District, and was represented by E. B. Washburne from 1853 to 1863, when a new apportionment was made whereby Illinois was given fourteen Congressmen, of whom thirteen were elected from regularly organized districts and one from the State-at-large. Under this apportionment Jo Daviess County was placed in the Third Congressional District, represented by E. B. Washburne until the Forty-first Congress (lt369), when, having been appointed Secretary of State by President Grant, he resigned and Horatio C. Burchard, of Freeport, was elected Congressman in his place, taking his seat Dec. 6, 1869. Mr. Burchard, by re-election in 1870, represented the Third District, which included Jo Daviess County, in the Forty-second Congress (1871-73). Another congressional apportionment was made in 1873, when Jo Daviess County was placed in the Fifth District and, in the Forty-third, Forty-fourth and Forty-fifth Congresses (1873-79), it continued to be represented by Mr. Burchard under this apportionment. In the Forty-sixth Congress (1879-81), the Fifth District, including Jo Daviess County, was represented by R. M. A. Hawk, of Mt. Carroll, who was re-elected to the Forty-seventh Congress to serve from 1881 to 1883, but died while in office, when Robert R. Hitt (the present incumbent) was elected his successor.

In 1883 another congressional apportionment was had, when Illinois was given twenty Congressmen and Jo Daviess County placed in the Sixth District, with Robert R. Hitt as its Congressman, who has continued to serve Jo Daviess County in that capacity up to the present time, 1904. Two apportionments have been made since that of 1883-the first in June, 1893, under the census of 1890, and the second May 13, 1901, under the census of 1900. Under the first of these the State was divided into 22 Congressional Districts, with Jo Daviess County in the Ninth; and under the second (now in force) there are 25 Districts, Jo Daviess being in the Thirteenth. As already indicated, however, there has been no change during this period in the representation of the county in Congress. It will thus be seen that the Congressional Districts in which Jo Daviess County has been placed, have been represented by men who have had more than local reputation. Some of them can fairly be claimed by Jo Daviess County, of whom we shall speak more at length in the chapter devoted to a short history of the many citizens of Jo Daviess County who became men of national reputation.

Jo Daviess County, since its organization, has played its part in the formation of the various Constitutional Conventions which have been held during that period. In the Convention of 1847 it was represented by Thompson Campbell (of whom a brief sketch has been given elsewhere), 0. C. Pratt and William B. Green, all of whom exerted a marked influence in the convention. In the Constitutional Convention of 1862 Jo Daviess County was represented by Wellington Weigley, one of the most brilliant advocates of the Galena Bar. At that time the nation was torn by civil strife, so that careful deliberation was almost out of the question, and the-result of the convention was so distasteful to Mr. Weigley, that he took the stump and earnestly advocated that the work of the convention be rejected by the people, which was done. Mr. Weigley is still living, residing with his daughter in Chicago at the age of nearly 90 years. In the convention of 1869-70; William Cary, an attorney then in practice in Galena, represented the county, the result of which convention was the present Constitution of the State. The following named persons have directly represented Jo Daviess County in the State Legislature since the organization of the State. The list is believed to be correct and the services rendered in the order named:

Several of the persons mentioned below, namely: Wallace A. Little, Henry Green, R. H. McClellan and J. C. McKenzie, L. P. Sanger, G. W. Harrison, Jas. W. Stephenson, A. G. S. Wight and H. H. Gear were State Senators. Wallace A. Little, R. H. McClellan, Henry Green and J. C. McKenzie served in the House before becoming Senators. The list is as near complete as the records show: Benjamin Mills, Jas. W. Stephenson, Elijah Charles, A. G. S. Wight, S. M. Bartlett, James Craig, G. W. Harrison, Germanicus Kent, Thos. Drummond, Hiram W. Thornton, Jno. McDonald, Cyrus Aldrich, Abner Eads, L. P. Sanger, H. H. Gear, C. D. Denio, J. R. Jones, R. H. McClellan, Henry Green, Jno. D. Platt, William Cary, A. M. Jones, Forest Turner, Hiram Tyrell, C. S. Burt, Joseph Moore, Julius A. Hammond, D. A. Sheffield, G. W. Pepoon, James Carr, George W. Curtiss, Henry Frentress, B. B. Howard, J. C. McKenzie, (is the present State Senator 1903) Wallace A. Little, James Berryman, H. S. Townsend, M. H. Cleary

(Excerpt from the book "History of Jo Daviess County 1904 - Transcribed by Dori Leekley)